Saturday, March 13, 2010

isaiah 40-48 cg teaching

Challenge Group: Isaiah

Isaiah 40-48

1. Intro – Discussion: What aspects of God do you think about often? Which aspects about God bring you comfort in times of distress?

2. Intellectual Controversies

a. Second “Deutero” Isaiah

i. Some liberal Christians believe that this section of Isaiah had to be written by someone else at a later date.

ii. “The fact that the prophet lived in the 8th century B.C. makes it very difficult for some scholars to accept that he could have identified Cyrus the Persian by name, since Cyrus did not arrive on the scene of history until nearly 200 years later.” – Hill and Walton

iii. “The whole case for the sovereignty of God in Isaiah 40-48 is built around the Lord’s ability to say beforehand what He is going to do and then challenge the idols to do the same. The naming of Cyrus comes at a crucial climax” – Hill and Walton

iv. N.T. proof: Mt. 3:3, 12:17ff, Lk. 3:4, Acts 8:28, Rm. 10:16 (Isa. 53), and Jn. 12:38-41 (Isa. 53 + 7)

b. Who is the Servant?

i. Confusing language and switches make this an area of controversy. We will look at this some as we go through the verses.

ii. Controversy over the meaning of 1 Pet. 1:10-12 lit. what type or what time.

iii. Either way, we know which passages the N.T. claims to be fulfilled by Christ.

iv. “This is an ideal Servant, One who embodies all that Israel failed to be.” D.A. Carson

3. Outline

a. Isa. 40-66 – God’s Comfort and Redemption

b. Isa. 40-55 – Servant Songs

c. Isa. 40-48 – Trust in the Great and Only God

d. 40 – Trust in God, who is Greater than Everything

e. 41 – God will be a Needed Help

f. 42 – Servant will Make the Blind See

g. 43 – Unfaithful Israel Redeemed by the Only God

h. 44 – Worthless Idols vs. Only Redeeming God

i. 45 – Only One Creating and Saving God

j. 46 – Unequaled God Brings Righteousness to the Unrighteous

k. 47 – Babylon Judged

l. 48 – God won’t give His Glory to Another

4. Isaiah 40

a. 40:1 – See 39:6 for context.

b. 40:6-8 – “Men are transient and unreliable but the Lord’s word endures.” -Motyer

c. 40:9 – Zion=bringer of good news. Then Jesus did this in the ultimate sense, then He passes this mission onto us, His Body.

d. 40:10 – His ARM rules. This is a word – picture for Christ. (c.f. Isa. 59:16) It says that Christ had a special part to play and the language is repeated in this last section of Isaiah.

e. 40:11 – The ARM is used to bring closeness between leader and lambs. Some translations say “arms”, but it is singular.

f. 40:12-17 – God is sovereign. People can’t outsmart or overpower Him. Think of the situation that these people were facing – sometimes in the midst of suffering, it is hard to understand what God is doing.

g. 40:18-26 – Think of the small and sometimes stupid things we trust in when the all-powerful God is there. He is the ally we always have, and He’s also the ally we really need.

h. 40:27-28 – God notices and understands

i. 40:29-31 – Waiting for the Lord…

“Power (osma) is related to the word for ‘bone’ and, therefore, has the sense of ‘durability’ and ‘stability’.” “[Those who wait] are promised renewed strength (vhalap) (lit.) ‘keep putting on fresh strength’, and different strength, a strength that is not natural, as if people could grow wings…he finds inner resources that do not fail before life’s demands.” -Motyer

5. Isaiah 41

a. 41:4 – Alpha and Omega. God has always been there, and will always be there

b. 41:8-14 – Israel, the man and the nation, are God’s servants – then he brings up the Redeemer

6. Isaiah 42

a. 42:1-4 – Servant is self-effacing, merciful, compassionate, and just.

b. 42:5-7 – Servant is a Covenant and a Light to the nations. He will open blind eyes and free prisoners. (c.f. Lk. 7:21-22, Isa. 61:1, Acts 26:23, Jn. 8:12)

c. 42:17-20 – Back to Israel as God’s servant, blind and deaf. Jesus said that he spoke in parables for this reason.

d. 42:21 – Jesus didn’t come to abolish the Law, but to fulfill it. God gave us the whole Bible – every part – for a reason. It pleased Him, for His righteousness’ sake. It is great!

7. Isaiah 43

a. 43:1-7 – God really loves Israel; He wants to do a lot for them, and He does do a lot for them.

b. 43:10-13 – There is only one Savior and Redeemer. God says that He acts, He saves, and He helps people to understand Him.

c. 43:16-20 – “Israel is used to reflecting on [the Exodus], but now God will do a new thing. So do not dissolve into the past…Be courageous, for God will do a new thing, to effect a new cycle of spectacular delivery.” D.A. Carson

“The past can teach, but it must not bind. The gaze must be ever forward to what God will yet do.” -Motyer

d. 43:21 – Quoted in 1 Pet. 2:9

e. 43:25 – God wipes out sin for His own sake. It’s what He wants to do, and what He chooses to do. “for my own sake means for reasons that find their explanation within my own nature.” -Motyer

8. Isaiah 44

a. 44:6-8 – There is only one God and prophet

b. 44:20 – Description of an idol-worshipper

c. 44:22 – The sin cloud cleared

d. 44:28 – Introducing Cyrus. Cyrus came to power in 559 B.C.E. and is well-known for letting the Israelites return home and begin rebuilding after the exile. (c.f. Ezra 1:2-4)

9. Isaiah 45

a. 45:1-6 – Cyrus is chosen

b. 45:7-10 – We, the created, should know our place.

c. 45:18-19 – “Just as natural fruitfulness requires the fertilizing action of heaven on a responsive earth, so spiritually, only God can give increase by ‘raining down’ righteousness, i.e. His absolutely right purposes, those things which match His righteous nature. The earth is an attractive figure of responsive welcome to what God sends.” -Motyer

d. 45:22-24 – All knees will bow… (c.f. Php. 2:10-11)

10.Isaiah 46

e. 46:4 – Even later in life, God will still be there with us. This is a lifelong relationship and companion. This verse shows that while God is transcendent, He is also immanent.

f. 46:5 – God is completely unique and unequaled.

g. 46:8-13 – God’s prophecy shows His sovereignty and that salvation is sure. V.11 “bird of prey” – probably refers to Cyrus

11.Isaiah 47

h. 47:6 – Babylon is going to behave wrongly and eventually be judged

12.Isaiah 48

i. 48:3-5 – Another reason for prophecy

j. 48:6 – Reminds me of the “mystery”

k. 48:11 – We need to see this as loving, and take up the same cause.

l. 48:12-16 – Trinity in v.16+12. Interesting that God’s arm comes up again…could mean something or not. I don’t know.

m. 48:17-18 – “Teaching” and “Leading” Mind + Actions/ Life

n. 48:20-22 – There is no peace for the wicked.

“The ways of the Lord are right,

And the righteous will walk in them,

But the rebellious will stumble in them.” – Hosea 14:9b

“The backslider in heart will have his fill of his own ways,

But a good man will be satisfied with his.” – Prov. 14:14

No comments:

Post a Comment